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Inclusions By Category


This is part two of a series on inclusions in glass.  To start at the beginning, click here.

Here's a list of common inclusions that work well in glass. 


Keep them fairly thin, the thicker they are the more likely they are to cause problems.  Most metals work best  between two layers of glass, but a few (such as thin silver and gold foils) can also work on top of the glass. Just about any metal can be used, but don't use zinc (or galvanized steel, which is zinc coated) -- that gives off a poisonous gas. Some to try:

copper -- wire, leaf, foil, sheet
silver -- wire, leaf, foil, sheet
gold -- wire, leaf, foil, sheet
brass -- foil, sheet
aluminum -- foil, cut up soft drink cans

Organic materials

Some organics will burn up in the kiln, but most will leave traces behind.  Most are best sandwiched between two layers of glass.  As with all inclusions, experimentation is the key.

Fruits and vegetables (best in a casting, burn them out and then fill the cavity with glass)
Dollar bills - don't fire too high, try 1450 or so
Starfish -- put on bottom of sheet of glass
Try some other organic things (like dead frogs and such)

Click here for a discussion of sea shells as an inclusion.

Air bubbles

Most of the time bubbles are unintentional and often they're not desirable, but planned air bubbles can be quite attractive.  They can be made from reed glass, stringers, sandblasted glass, and more.

Fiber paper

Ordinary fiber paper can also be used as an inclusion, in any thickness from thinfire up to 1/4" (6mm).  Click here for information on using fiber paper as an inclusion.

Stay tuned -- future tips will offer specific instructions on how to fire these and many more inclusions.


Copyright 2005 Brad Walker.  All rights reserved.

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Copyright 2005-2006 by M. Bradley Walker.  All rights reserved.

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